R4.5: Hallmarks of Cancer

There are six hallmarks of cancer as described by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2000 [1]. An updated review in 2011 increased the hallmarks to 8 [2] and added two additional 'enabling characteristics'. I will summarise them in the following subtopics.



1. Hanahan, D., & Weinberg, R. A. (2000). The hallmarks of cancer. Cell, 100(1), 57–70.
2. Hanahan, D., & Weinberg, R. A. (2011). Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation. Cell, 144(5), 646–674. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2011.02.013