R4.5g: Deregulation of Cellular Energetics

This is a new 'hallmark' described by Hanahan and Weinberg in 2011.

Normal cells produce energy from glucose through glycolysis to pyruvate which then enters the citric acid cycle within the mitochondria. Malignant cells upregulate glycolysis which forms an increased source of energy compared to normal aerobic cells.

The rationale for this increase is unknown as glycolysis is not as energy efficient. The reduced efficiency is compensated for by upregulation of GLUT1 which increases glucose uptake in malignant cells.

Although the reason for this is unknown it can be utilised by FDG PET scanning to identify malignant cells.