a) Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Penis


The incidence of penile SCC increases with age. It is most common in Africa, with rates of up to 1% lifetime incidence. It is least common in Jews. In the west, the yearly incidence is about 1/100,000. The incidence of the disease is falling slowly.

Aetiology and Pathogenesis

There are several known factors that influence the development of SCC:

  • HPV infection - The rates of penile cancer closely follow the rates of cervical cancer. HPV forms 16 and 18 have been implicated in 33-100% of cases. Most cases of HPV related cancer are of the warty type (rather than the usual keratinising type).
  • Phimosis
  • UV exposure (WTF?)
  • Lichen Sclerosis
  • Smoking
  • Lack of circumcision

Natural History

Precursor lesions
Modes of spread

Clinical Presentation

Blood Findings
Imaging Findings

Tumour/Normal Tissue Features

Laboratory Diagnosis
- macroscopic, microscopic, architecture, grading, growth patterns, immunohistochemistry, molecular techniques, serum markers

Staging / Classification

TNM or other staging system if relevant