The incidence of penile SCC increases with age. It is most common in Africa, with rates of up to 1% lifetime incidence. It is least common in Jews. In the west, the yearly incidence is about 1/100,000. The incidence of the disease is falling slowly.
Aetiology and Pathogenesis
There are several known factors that influence the development of SCC:
- HPV infection - The rates of penile cancer closely follow the rates of cervical cancer. HPV forms 16 and 18 have been implicated in 33-100% of cases. Most cases of HPV related cancer are of the warty type (rather than the usual keratinising type).
- UV exposure (WTF?)
- Lichen Sclerosis
- Lack of circumcision
Modes of spread
Tumour/Normal Tissue Features
- macroscopic, microscopic, architecture, grading, growth patterns, immunohistochemistry, molecular techniques, serum markers
Staging / Classification
TNM or other staging system if relevant