Adrenal Tumours

Paragangliomas are neuroblastomas are considered in the autonomic nervous system pathology topic as they often occur outside of the adrenal gland. About 40% of neuroblastomas arise within the adrenal.

Adrenocortical Carcinoma

These are very rare malignancies of the adrenal cortex. They can be associated with Li Fraumeni and Beckwith-Weidermann syndromes. Functional tumours present with virilisation or precocious puberty, whereas non-functional tumours are frequently large and metastatic at diagnosis. Microscopic features vary but marked anaplasia with giant cell formation can occur.


A rare tumour of the adrenal medulla. These tumours often secrete catecholamines that cause hypertension and paroxysmal sweating and palpitations. Microscopically they are formed by nests of chief cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm surrounded by a well demarcated and thin stroma.